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香港经典三级片_

来源: 南方日报网络版     时间:2019-11-21 16:17:55

香港经典三级片

导读:看似美国与坦桑尼亚的二手服装贸易是个相对安全的市场。但是,还是那句话“没有最次,只有更次”。中国的廉价

导读:看似美国与坦桑尼亚的二手服装贸易是个相对安全的市场

但是,还是那句话“没有最次,只有更次”

中国的廉价劳动力再次让市场不安

难度指数:★★★★★干货量:★★★★★字数:1600While relations among U.S. used clothing dealers are intensely competitive, the industry as a whole would seem to occupy a secure place in the global industrial landscape. Rich Americans buy more and more clothing each year and therefore unload more and more, as well. The falling price of new clothing—particularly from China—will only accelerate this trend. In addition, the growing penchant for recycling will likely divert increasing amounts of clothing from the waste stream. Together, then, continued rampant consumerism as well as changing waste disposal practices would seem to assure a growing supply of American used clothing for the global market.(分析了美国服装二手市场为什么相对安全

1、货源充足

2、进货成本低廉

3、旧物回收利用的诉求增长

4、需求强劲

)Growing demand appears to be a safe prediction, as well.Trade barriers to used clothing continue to fall, thanks both to SMART’s efforts and to the general trend toward import liberalization in most countries. Perhaps more important, the poorer countries continue to have high rates of population growth, as well as a growing attraction to fashionable clothing.(需求除了源自贸易更开放,可能更重要的是非洲国家人口的高增长和对潮流服装的渴望

)There is a natural economic success story here, a simple market dynamic that portends well for the future. At the end of the T-shirt’s life, there is a refreshingly simple story of a winning business for America and for Tanzania, a link between Ed Stubin and Geofrey Milonge that is built on market logic rather than a web of political intrigue. While the U.S. textile and apparel industry is kept alive only by unnatural acts of life support in Washington, and U.S. cotton producers compete through politics, here is another business, mostly unheard of and largely ignored, whose promise lies in the simple matter of a compelling economic logic.At the end of my T-shirt’s life, it is refreshing, too, to see a real market in action, to see prices that move with the location of a collection bin or the time of day, where anyone with a bale is allowed to play. Such flexibility is the result of the faster-better-cheaper race that Stubin and Milonge engage in every day from opposite ends of the world, where everyone must keep their eyes on the markets and attend to numerous fluid relationships with customers, suppliers, and competitors. The used clothing trade is a dance of the gazelles with no protection from the lions. It is a marvel to watch.(gazelles,lions的比喻是第4章的内容

gazelles指的小企业发展迅速、灵活,lions指的大企业政治、经济影响巨大

)Thankfully, here finally is a business that at least should be safe from low-wage competitors, especially from China. It is not a big industry or a sexy industry, but it is a secure spot for both Ed and Geofrey. China has only a limited tradition of charitable giving, and incomes are still far too low to allow for large volumes of castoffs. The comparative advantage of U.S. clothing recyclers lies in America’s wealth and consumerism, both characteristics with staying power even given the challenging economic situation of 2008, and both characteristics in which China is far behind. And this relentless consumerism creates the supply that allows Geofrey to continually expand his business.But in fact, by 2008 both Geofrey Milonge and Ed Stubin were very worried about China.Every day, Geofrey sees more new clothing from China in the shops around Dar. Often the clothing is “seconds” from manufacturing runs destined for Europe or the United States, or just as often the labels and logos are pirated fakes. For now, customers still prefer the “old” clothing from America to the new clothing from China, Geofrey said, because the quality is believed to be better. But prices of new clothing from China have been falling while prices of old clothing from the United States have been rising, and Geofrey expects that over time the quality of the Chinese clothing will improve. And the relatively strong performance of the Tanzanian economy in recent years exacerbates the China threat. Geofrey worries that as incomes rise, the preference for new clothing will increase.(现在涌入坦桑尼亚市场的中国服装要不是欧美订单的“二等品”,要不是冒牌货

与美国的二手服装相比,既没有价格优势,也没有质量保证

但是情况总是不断变化的,考虑到坦桑尼亚经济加速发展,人们手里有闲钱了,坦桑尼亚的二手商Geofrey担心人们会想“为什么不填两个钱买件新衣服呢?”)Ed Stubin’s worries are a bit more complicated. After talking with Ed again in 2008, I realized that today, his business is now also a political creation of sorts, and that what politics creates it can also destroy. In a fascinating linkage, Stubin’s business now at least partly depends on the Auggie Tantillos in China. Unlike the U.S. textile industry and cotton farmers, Stubin gets no help or protection from the U.S. government. Strangely enough, in yet another unintended consequence, Stubin’s protection is now coming from the government of China.(美国的二手商Ed Stubin要考虑的更复杂点

因为他的生意现在莫名其妙的与中国的政策有了关联

)Under pressure from its own textile and apparel industry, the Chinese government has long banned the import of used clothing into the country. While this ban might seem to threaten Trans-Americas’ business, in fact the reverse is true.Stubin’s business creates value through its highly developed skills in grading and sorting. These skills can take a truckload from the Salvation Army in New Jersey and quickly get winter coats to the Ukraine, T-shirts to Africa, blue jeans to Japan, and high-end vintage wear to shops in Manhattan’s East Village.The first leg of a T-shirt’s journey from Trans-Americas to Africa begins with a truck ride to the port of New Jersey. It costs Trans-Americas about $700 to send 50,000 pounds of clothing on the short ride. The ride to Africa costs another $5,500, a journey of a month and a half with a stop in Europe. Container shipping is yet another industry ruled by clean market forces. When the supply of empty cargo ships at a given port swells, the price to load the container and send it on its way falls. America’s rampant consumerism has implications not just for the supply of used clothing available to world markets, but for shipping costs as well.(这一切还得从二手服装的航运费用说起

原来把50,000磅的旧服装运到港口需要$700,船运到非洲需要 $5,500

当某个港口的空船数量暴涨时,自然把船运费用拉了下来

)Thanks to our penchant for consumption, in 2007 the U.S. merchandise trade deficit swelled to $711 billion. The billions spent on French wines, Chinese T-shirts, and German cars not only was unreciprocated, it also left hundreds of cargo ships at U.S. ports begging for something to ship back. At the broadest level, the merchandise trade deficit in the United States means that shipping stuff into America costs much more than shipping it out.(拜“消费主义”所赐,美国港口船运量暴涨源自美国$7110亿的贸易逆差

来自法国、中国、德国的货船送完了货,总不能跑空船返航吧

所以从广义上说,美国的贸易逆差意味着物资出口运价比进口运价要低很多

【Q:为什么?A:毕竟出口物资租用船的选择很多

严重的供大于求

】)The price of shipping from America, however, reflects not just America’s trade deficit, but also the demand for cargo ships elsewhere. Therefore, in cases where a country has a large imbalance with the United States, shipping costs will be unbalanced as well. The U.S. merchandise trade deficit with China was $156 billion in 2007, with imports from China approximately five times greater than exports to China from the United States. While the 2008 trade deficit with China was expected to narrow with the economic downturn, a significant bilateral imbalance is projected for years to come. This means that shippers are keen to get ships from New Jersey back to the ports of Shanghai and Guangzhou in order to deliver more goods to America, but there are relatively few goods waiting to board the ships. In order to get ships back to China, the shipping companies in 2007 were dropping their prices to desperate levels: A 50,000-pound container of clothing could be shipped from New Jersey to China for approximately $800, about the same amount as it costs to send a truck from the Stubin factory to the New Jersey port. Even so, many containers return empty to China.(从美国发的货船运费不仅反映了美国的贸易逆差,而且反映了其他地区对货船的需求,也就是其他国家进口的数量

那些与美国贸易逆差大的国家、地区,它的货船返程价格也会成比例暴跌

)Given the shipping pricing trends that result from the U.S. trade deficit, Ed Stubin sees how at least some of the U.S. clothing recycling industry could shift to China. When I spoke to Stubin in 2004, he thought that it was possible that China would open its borders in the Export Processing Zones (EPZs) to used clothing. EPZs are an intermediate step between free trade and closed borders: Goods are allowed into the country for assembly or processing and subsequent re-export, but are not allowed into the domestic marketplace for consumption.If used clothing were allowed into the EPZs, Stubin told me, Chinese firms could buy in bulk from the U.S. charities, ship to China for next to nothing, and do the sorting right there in the EPZs; the clothing would never even have to leave the port. The workers would make $1 per hour instead of $10, and all of the other costs would be a fraction of America’s, too. The total shipping costs from the United States to Africa, even with the extra leg added onto the trip, could be lower than they are now. In other words, the low labor costs that give China an advantage in so many other industries could create an advantage in grading, sorting, and selling America’s castoffs as well. Indeed, Stubin told me in 2008, much of the grading and sorting had recently moved to the EPZs in India; exports of American used clothing to India more than tripled between 2004 and 2007. Because these goods were unsorted, the growing exports had bypassed U.S. firms such as Trans-Americas.(把美国的旧服装分类工作放到拥有廉价劳动力的国家的出口加工区

旧服装不进入该国市场,就是利用廉价劳动力,完成分类后,再转运到非洲

)If China, too, opened its EPZs to American used clothing, the challenge would only be magnified. If cotton can travel from Texas to China to become a T-shirt, and then travel all the way back to the United States to be worn a first time and then to Africa to be worn a second time, then certainly a return trip to China would not be a major detour. Ed Stubin is not a cotton farmer or a textile mill owner, so it doesn’t even occur to him to look to Washington for help in facing international competition.But under this scenario, Stubin told me in 2008, there would still be a secure (even if smaller) spot for Trans-Americas. Stubin would still have the advantage of his worldwide network of customers who had come to rely on him for high-quality clothing, delivered quickly as the climate or fashion trends demanded. Perhaps most important, Stubin would have time on his side. Though China might beat the United States on labor costs, the extra month or so required for another trip to Asia would simply be too long to wait for many participants in this fast-paced market.CET4-CET6重点单词divert:v.转移(To divert money or resources means to cause them to be used for a different purpose.),改道,转接电话;intrigue: n.阴谋(Intrigue is the making of secret plans to harm or deceive people.),v.激起...的好奇心;stayingpower:n.忍耐力;seconds:n.二等品、次级品(Seconds are goods that are sold cheaply in stores because they have slight faults.);pirate:v.盗版,n.海盗;over time:总有一天、久而久之;assembly:n.组装、装配,议会、集会;magnify:v.放大

黑词portend:v.预示;refreshing:adj.令人耳目一新的,让人精神恢复的;relentless:adj.不间断地、坚持不懈的,毫不留情的;reciprocate:v.同等回报(If your feelings or actions toward someone are reciprocated, the other person feels or behaves in the same way toward you as you have felt or behaved toward them.)

重要概念:1、consumerism:消费主义

摘录一段豆瓣读书的评价“当今美国文化研究里经常出现的语词

这里所谓“消费”并不是传统政治经济学范畴里所指的对物品的需求与满足,而是指人与物品之间的关系

”2、Export Processing Zones:出口加工区

国家划定或开辟的专门制造、加工、装配出口商品的特殊工业区

常享受减免各种地方征税的优惠

出口加工区一般选在经济相对发达、交通运输和对外贸易方便、劳动力资源充足、城市发展基础较好的地区,多设于沿海港口或国家边境附近

专为制造、加工、装配出口商品而开辟的特殊区域,其产品的全部或大部供出口

国务院规定, 我国出口加工区只能设在国家级经济技术开发区内, 面积严格控制在2 3平方公里

区内实行“境内关外”政策和封闭式的区域管理模式, 海关对进、出加工区的货物及区内相关场所实行24小时监管, 加工贸易业务归口省级外经贸部门管理




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